In this chapter we will attempt to share some thoughts on the writings of Guru Ram Das as witnessed in Guru Granth Sahib. It must be stressed here that any approach that may be seen as comparative would be indicative of poor sensitivity because the Gurus were indeed all inspired by the same vision of the Divine and human quest to unite with it. They continued to share their message in their words with the laity exemplifying and addressing at times issues that arose as the persuasion started to influence the way the believers lived and related to the world they were living in; though within the frame of their shared vision.

In that backdrop we start with a brief recapitulation of the Guru’s life and times and then move on to some aspects of his writings to get an insight into his thought and influence on evolving Sikh institutions and corporate religious and temporal life.


Guru Ram Das was born in 1534, five years before Guru Nanak’s passing, in Chuna Mandi Lahore. Only child of Hari Das and Daya Kaur, named Ram Das, he was popularly called Jetha [first born]. At 12 he traveled to Guru Angad’s ministry at Khadur Sahib, with a group of Sikhs. Around the same time Angad asked Amar Das, who had been the Guru’s disciple since 1540, to set up a new habitation in Goindwal and move there. Ram Das also moved thence.

Six years later, in 1552, Angad anointed Amar Das as his successor. Ram Das was 18 and had been in seva for six years. Active and dedicated, he was noticed and Guru Amar Das gave his daughter Bibi Bhani in marriage to him. The year was 1554 and Ram Das was twenty. Twenty years later he was anointed successor to Amar Das. As it would come to pass, he would have served the longest period, 28 years, preparatory to succession.

All these years Ram Das had been a witness to the inner workings of the ministries of Angad and Amar Das. Even though he never saw Guru Nanak, given his sensitivity, he would have assimilated essence of the founder Guru’s mission and ministry, joining Guru’s house seven years after Nanak’s passing as he did. He therefore would have been acutely aware of the way the nascent panth was evolving under the guidance of Nanak’s successor Gurus.

A recount of the times also would be helpful. With the Ghauri’s occupation of North India towards the end of 12th century, Punjab came to be ruled by a series of Muslim dynasties around 172 years before the rest of country. In the process it also became the arena for struggle between Hindus and Muslims. The times of Nanak were marked by the tyrannical and unjust rule of Ibrahim Lodhi and Babar’s invasions. Angad’s ministry was for the most part during the Suri period. The ministries of Amar Das, Ram Das and Arjan coincided with the 50-year rule of Akbar. Issues of peace and justice that touched Nanak so passionately receded following more stable and organized governance that emerged during this period. Guru Ram Das’s writings are reflective of that societal mood.

So while the external environment was less hostile, the Gurus were steadily guiding the growing panth on to a path of translating the concept of a householder’s faith. Angad reformed Punjabi language to become a fit vehicle for literary writing. He also introduced sporting activities as part of his daily regimen and the langar in his time was managed by Mata Khivi, his wife – the first woman to be actively involved in leadership role in the emerging Sikh tradition and the only Sikh woman whose name finds a mention in the Granth..

Amar Das introduced several reforms and created an organization to manage the growing and widely dispersed Sikh community. He organized manjis and piris to locally take care of Sikh affairs in places as far away as Kabul and Dacca. Significantly women had a good share of leadership positions in these institutions. The Guru also encouraged the women to give up the practice of purdah, preached against sati and approved of widow remarriage. He also married his daughter to the chanting of anand sahib, making a break from the tradition he had grown up in.

During the ministry of Amar Das some Brahmin detractors of the Guru complained to Akbar that his practice of allowing all to eat together was ignoring the religious and social distinctions of the Hindus. Ram Das was sent to the Emperor’s court and explained effectively the Guru’s persuasion of equality before God of all human beings causing the case to be dismissed. The encounter not only resulted in broader recognition of some of the basic tenets of Sikh thought but also of the depth of understanding, communication abilities and engaging persona of Ram Das.

Amar Das also asked Ram Das to undertake development of a pool and a new habitation at the place now known as Amritsar; a huge task given the stage of development of the panth. Ram Das got involved headlong into the project with zeal and commitment. His work, his piety and his conduct through the 22 years of Amar Das’s ministry earned the respect and confidence of the Guru as well as the sangat and all, as recorded in the Granth by Sundar, accepted his succession to Guru ship in 1574.

Here it is relevant that Nanak was born a Hindu and his enlightenment came when he was around thirty. He was well versed in both Hindu and Muslim traditions and engaged effectively with them. Angad, a devotee of Durga, came to Nanak when he was around thirty and succeeded Nanak at thirty-five. Amar Das, a Vaishnava, came to Angad in his sixties and succeeded him when he was seventy-three. In their growing years both Angad and Amar Das were devoted Hindus. The compositions of the first three Gurus reflect these influences in various ways – the most obvious being drawing upon the mythological references and explaining their thoughts through the prism of Hindu/Muslim thought and praxis.

Ram Das came from a family already influenced by the Sikh Gurus and his association with the Gurus started even before he entered his teens. This background may have had some influence on his writings and style. Mythological references are rare – he seems comfortable with the thought, its mode of expression and confident in the receptivity of the audience. The language he uses is easy and largely Punjabi. His verses are lyrical, sometimes repeating a word for emphasis, almost as if being recited in a group setting; witness – sabh kaho mukho nar narhare nar narhare nar narhare har laha har bhagat visekhya [Kanra M IV, p. 1315].

Social issues are referred to reinforce core beliefs and to bring into relief the emerging identity of the faith adherents. He reflects on his expectation of Sikhs and their relation with the Guru; their organization; their weddings, liturgy et al. He also broadened the range of Ragas and Raginis used and a wider usage of secular measures and musical instruments in kirtan. The Granth indicates high accomplishments during Ram Das’s ministry, though it lasted only seven years.


Ram Das’s compositions constitute a significant part of the Granth. He wrote 679 hymns including pauris/slok  and eight vars. His compositions are included in daily Sikh prayers rehras and kirtan sohela. His sloks are included in asa ki var sung in the early pre dawn hours in most Gurdwaras. Sikh weddings are solemnized to the singing of hymns written by him. Written in easy to understand, sometimes even folksy metaphors several of his verses have become part of every idiom e.g. sevak jan seveh te parvan [Tukhari]; jion bhavai tion rakh lai [Asa]; akli sahib seveeay [Sarang].

Musical measures or ragas provide the editorial frame of the Granth. Compositions by Nanak are written to nineteen ragas; Angad’s and Amar Das’s  are to six and seventeen of those ragas respectively. Ram Das’s compositions are to thirty ragas; eleven of them –Devgandhari, Bihagra, Jaitsri, Todi, Bairari, Gaund, Nat Narayan, Mali Gaura, Kedara, Kanra and Kalyan – introduced to his writings only. Arjan also wrote to the same thirty ragas. One more raga was added by Guru Tegh Bahadur’s compositions.

Ram Das also wrote eight of the twenty-two vars. Of the eight vars for which the tunes to which these should be sung are suggested in the Granth. Ram Das wrote three – var in raga vadhans to the tune of lallaa benlima, in sarang to tune of rai mehma hasna and kanra to tune of var of musa.

Besides the volume of his writings, the contribution of Ram Das to the musical repertoire in Granth is extensive. Not only he broadened the range of ragas to classical music mode but also compositions sung to folk or secular music like vars, ghorian, pehre. He also introduced a stylistic variant partal in which the antras are sung to different taal; creating an ecstatic devotional effect. He is also credited with introducing the sarinda, a versatile string instrument specifically to accompany in kirtan. His persuasion was to sing God’s praises with devotion for it is only then that it may earn merit.[1] He also rejected any relative hierarchy of the measure to which hymns were sung saying that the best raga was the one that helped instill love of the Divine in one’s heart.[2] He also told his Sikhs that joining in singing or listening to kirtan brings merit in the court of the Lord only if the Sikh places full faith in the teachings of the Guru.[3]


All the Gurus in their writings have variously envisioned God, His attributes and recognized how God’s being could not really be fully comprehended or described. Ram Das also says there is none other like You.[4] If there was another like You we would speak of that being.[5] He calls upon people not to be gullible to be blindly misguided into looking up to the slaves [gods and goddesses] rather than the supreme Lord Himself.[6]

In Sorath, Guru Ram Das has written 6 shabads that could be termed as aapey de shabad. The verses explore the nature of the Supreme being using the metaphor of cause and effect, purpose and reward and set out the attributes of God in a lucid, homely way explaining to the perplexed devotee that God has created all that we see, do and experience in our lives with their diverse pulls and pressures. The transactions in life – God created the tensions; in fact He is the tensions, their cause and the solution. We should therefore approach life as an experience ordained and directed by Him and be fully involved because He is immanent in all its facets, good, bad, inspiring, disappointing, successes, failures. Witness some extracts – He pervades all yet is detached; is trader, banker, trade and credit – – – is listener and speaker too; leads to failure also showing the way out; is involved fully yet carefree – – – creates all and gives them vocations; brings into being and destroys too; is the wharf and also the ferry – – – is the ocean, the ship, the pilot and the passenger; looking joyously at His wonderous play He mercifully, forgiving allows the mortal to blend with Himself. [7]

Another example is so purkh, part of the Sikh daily evening prayer rehras. The composition reflects on the attributes of God and ways to merge in His light. Written in simple, spoken language, the verses succinctly bring out the foundational Sikh beliefs.

All beings meditate on God – the unreachable, unfathomable, unrivalled; true Creator; provider for all, dispeller of suffering – He is the Lord and slave too. What significance do poor humans have![8]

He is immanent in all; being rich or poor is his play; He is the provider and consummator of His giving; Infinite, His attributes cannot be counted. Blessed are those that serve His cause.[9]

Those who meditate on You live in peace; will be liberated. They are truly blessed; their fears dispelled those who serve will merge with the Lord.[10]

Diverse are the ways to pray and abundant the treasures of Thy prayer. Your devotees praise Thee variously – through penance, rituals, repeating Your name, following Smritis, Shastras and six rites. Yet praying that pleases You is the best.[11]

None is greater than You, ever stable, unchanging Lord. What You like comes to pass. You create and destroy. Nanak sings praises of the all knower Lord.[12]

The message is clear; unambiguous that service of, meditating on, and singing His praises are the ways to pray that will lead to liberation. Other paths are there and many follow them but will gain approval only if God likes them. It is all conveyed in a gentle, soft metaphor by placing the practices in juxtaposition rather comparison – a truly tolerant, pluralistic approach.


Some of Guru Ram Das’s most poignant compositions are those where his deep emotions of love for the Divine are expressed. The metaphor of a woman longing for her lover makes these verses resonate in the devotee’s heart and some examples of the soulful outpourings of the Guru are appended below.

In Rag Bihagra chhant Guru Ram Das has written 6 shabads all addressed to – meri jindriye – ‘my soul’. All the verses are reflective of the poignant prayer of a soul longing for union with the Lord. The rhyme and metaphor is eminently suited for reciting to gether in a congregational setting – at once absorbing and uplifting. The longing when consummated in union is described in words that leave one deeply touched, elevated to a state of bliss, almost as if in harmony with the music of the spheres.[13]

The metaphor for the longing becomes lyrical, life like, humble, human, in deep anguish almost lost, seeking, searching, looking for an answer – I adorn myself in various dresses so that I may please my Lord but if my Lord does not even as if look at me what should I tell my aching heart? Is it that for the One for whom I have adorned myself is imbued with the love of another? Sayeth Nanak that blessed is the bride who savors the love of the true sublime Lord.[14]

Continuing he provides the answer – the way to meet the Lord, my friend, is to surrender your mind, being and soul to Him and then if the Lord’s look of grace falls on you, your light will blend in His.[15] Thank you, thank you, the heart spontaneously responds – – for any one who brings me the tidings of my Lord, I would gladly offer my body and soul, serve day and night waving the fan, filling water, anything![16]


And when the dear Lord does deighn to come to the pining devotees chambers the experience as if at once brings peace and harmony to the aching heart.[17]

This relation between God and His devotees is not entirely one sided. God is friends to His devotees. He loves them. He responds to them the same way as a musical instrument resonates to the touch of a musician.[18] For in truth, those who meditate on God become like God and He meets them joyfully.[19]


Guru in Sikh thought helps the devotee connect with shabad that in turn enshrines nam in the devotee’s consciousness putting the person on the path of God realization. Ram Das in his compositions has expounded on the same thought saying – to you, man of God, true Guru and man of truth I make my supplication – my Guru, I am insignificant like a crawling worm, in your kindness take me in your protection and bless me with the light of nam – – – [for] accursed are lives of those who have not sought protection of the true Guru – – [whereas] those who found the Guru, the slave of God, are destined to connect with God; blessed is the congregation of the seekers of truth in whose midst God’s love abounds and nam is always manifest.[20]

The Guru is a true friend, guide, and philosopher. Sikhs love him and come storm, high wind or rain, they will always go to have a glimpse of his Guru.[21] Absent service of the True Guru all that we do only adds to our bondage; there is no rest for our soul as it continues through cycles of birth and death; our protestations are hollow because God’s name will not dwell within us and we will depart in ignominy to the pain and suffering of death.[22]


These verses indicate the level of respect and regard Ram Das had for the Guru and for the institution of Guru ship. He has also articulated thus on his expectations of a Sikh – he who wants to be known as Guru’s Sikh rises early and meditates on the Divine; he is inclined to strive and starts his day by cleansing himself physically and spiritually; as the Sikh meditates on God and Guru’s teachings his sins and misdeeds are forgiven; as the day progresses he sings God’s praises and stays attuned to God’s name even as engaged in all his activities. The Guru favors such a Sikh who is in communion with the Divine continuously and with such blessed one the Guru shares his teachings. Nanak begs the dust of feet of that Sikh who is and makes others prayerful.[23]

Sikhs of the Guru have great love for God and worship their Guru. Their vocation is nam and they profit by it. Their image is clean and they are acceptable in the Lord’s court. They share the Guru’s treasure of nam and blessed are the Sikhs who constantly meditate on God’s name.[24]

Listening to and accepting the Guru’s teachings is important and blessed are the Sikhs who listen to the Guru’s divine sermon — and it is Sikhs with whom God is pleased who internalize Guru’s word.[25]

Blessed indeed says the Guru is the Sikh who seeks the Guru; who by serving the Guru learns the nam; who utters God’s name and to whom listening to nam is blissful. The Sikh treading Guru’s path deserves high praise and respect.[26] Most fortunate are the Guru’s Sikhs. They fall at Guru’s feet.[27]

Sikhs who are devoted and serve the Guru are blessed and Nanak is ever devoted to them [10] — those Sikhs of the Guru who meditate on the Lord and keep His name in their hearts are loved by the Guru and will be saved [14] — the Guru recites divine word adorned with nam and Sikhs who hear and internalise it will crave no more [18].[28]

Guru will listen to you when you are feeling low, downcast, defeated. Putting aside your discerning intellect submit your faculties to the Guru and supplicate for the troubling thoughts to go away. Company of the virtuous will help you overcome any obstacles, the venerable Guru will remove your fears and anxieties and bring you a state of happiness momentarily.[29]

The Guru – Sikh relation is one of mutuality. Ram Das tells his Sikhs that the Guru is like a field of faith where you reap as you sow. Guru’s Sikhs sow the purest nectar and will receive liberating fruit. Bright are their countenances here and in the hereafter and they will be favored with robes of honor in God’s court.[30]

On his part the Guru loves all his Sikhs equally like friends, sons and brothers.[31] Sacrifice is the Guru, sacrifice is he to such Sikh of the Guru, his dear friend who recites to him, his support, the Lord’s name.[32]

Guru Ram Das holds a Sikh in very high esteem and asks of them to – Give me the gift of nam, my friends, which is life of my life. I am slave to those Sikhs of the Guru who are imbued with the love of God. In my being, body and mind, the love of Guru’s Sikh has set foot – he is my friend in life, my brother and I plead unto him to tell me how to meet with my Lord.[33] The Guru now is placing his Sikh at a very high pedestal indeed explained possibly by the thought that the Guru and his Sikh are both engaged in bringing the same message to the people.[34]

The above text provides an insight into the thoughts of Ram Das on the role of the Guru, his Sikh and their relationship. It certainly brings home the multi-faceted inspirational and motivational approach of the Guru in communicating his thought to the Sikhs and winning them over. He sets a personal example of his own devotion to Guru and assures the Sikhs of the love and support that their Guru has for them. He urges Sikhs to the path of virtuous and prayerful living in words that are encouraging and offer hope. He honors those who persevere by saying that they are as good as the Guru himself; nay that he would seek the guidance of such Sikhs himself to connect with the Divine. He keeps his Sikhs going despite difficulties by assuring them of Guru’s support in their endeavor and being always there for them. There is not much more that the modern leadership theories throw up as the qualities of a great inspirational leader.


Sikh precepts on the significance and purpose of human life consider human incarnation a great gift of God and the unique opportunity for union with the Divine. This union has to be achieved living the life of a householder and the traditional Indian concept of four ashrams where the individual finally retires to a life of renunciation of civic life to seek spiritual elevation is not commended. One gets a glimpse of Sikh Guru’s views on stages of life – ashrams – in four shabads, two by Guru Nanak, one by Guru Ram Das and one by Guru Arjan Dev titled pehre. While there are differences in the four presentations, by and large the basic concept remains the same. In all the shabads life is considered akin to a night, divided into four pehres or time periods as traditionally understood. Individual is addressed as vanjara, a merchant consummating various transactions as he travels along the journey of life. The man is instinctively motivated that his dealings are profitable – but the real gain is getting acceptance in God’s court. A brief annotation of the paradigm presented by Ram Das is given below.

The first stage starts on being conceived. The fetus is in an uncomfortable environment and survives contemplating of God, praying and uttering His name. His birth is to great delight of mother and father but the baby is reminded to meditate on God and seek His mercy.

In the second stage as the child is brought up with great love the parents begin harboring an expectation that the child will support them when he grows up. The conflict of duality pervades child’s thinking and he begins to embrace the worldly things. Rare is the one who is contemplative and cherishes God’s love in his heart.

In the third stage the person is fully embroiled in the entanglements of a householder’s life. He contemplates not the God’s name but is focused on gathering material comforts and wealth, little realizing that this wealth is false and ephemeral. Such people depart in sorrow while those whom the Lord mercifully unites with the Guru remember God and end up merging in the Lord.

As the final stage approaches death is close and time is fleeting. The man is persuaded every moment to serve the Guru and tarry no more. He is told to recognize that the Guru who put him on path of prayer is no different from God and enjoined to live life joyfully savoring God’s thought, as a true devotee, so that fear of birth and death goes away and his endeavor is fruitful.[35]

A couple of observations may be relevant here. Clearly the Sikh thought is that life does begin at conception. This may have a bearing on our position on life related issues being so much a part of the present day pro-life and pro-choice discourse as well as the social issue of female infanticide. Also even though there is the suggestion of more intensely trying to mould oneself to a prayerful life as one advances in age, clearly there is no suggestion of withdrawal to achieve this objective. As Ram Das says in another place – that even if one may give up family and abide in a forest the mind still continues to be restless;[36] the endeavor therefore has to be to achieve detachment while living as a householder.[37]

Guru Ram Das also says that birth as human is obtained through prior good deeds and could go waste if one forgets the nam.[38] Human body is home of righteousness and repository of Divine light.[39] The Guru therefore says that blessed is the tongue that sings of God’s name; ears that listen to His praises; head that bows before the Guru; eyes that see the saintly; hands that write God’s praises; feet that carry men onto the path of righteousness. Nanak is sacrifice unto those who hear of and believe in God’s name.[40]


Another major contribution of Ram Das is the compositions he wrote relating to the celebration of every stage and ceremony in weddings that over time have evolved the Sikh weddings into a very unique, dignified and spiritually enhancing experience. The ceremony solemnizing the betrothal, called kurmai is lauded saying that imbued with truth and contentment the groom’s father has brought the proposal and gift of kurmai.[41]


Ram Das also composed two shabads entitled ghorian; traditionally songs sung at the time of weddings when the groom is ready to alight the horse for proceeding to bride’s house. The message of the shabad is that human incarnation, Guru’s guidance and the person’s endeavor are essential to the abiding, enduring relationship with God which will transcend the ephemeral and transient. The human body is referred to as – kanchan – gold made more precious if nam dwells in it.  Witness some extracts: mounting the body mare a mortal crosses the hazardous ocean of life and given Guru’s guidance achieves supreme bliss — due Lord’s mercy upon servant Nanak mounting the body-horse, he has reached the Lord.[42]


There are several hymns that may be sung welcoming the groom’s arrival at the bride’s place in the ceremony known popularly as milni. Sample one that says that the Lord has blessed this celebration and a God conscious groom has arrived for his wedding.[43]

The actual Sikh wedding ceremony involving circumambulation around the Granth by the bridal couple is to the accompaniment of singing of verses by Ram Das called lavan. The composition is a four-quartet hymn. In the first quartet the couple is impressed the duties of wedded life – to hold fast to faith and righteous conduct; contemplate on God and dwell on the Guru for attainment of good fortune and eternal bliss. Thus by the first round the marriage rite is commenced.

The second round symbolizes meeting the Guru who helps free the mind of fear, and ego and subsumed now in singing God’s praises one perceives the Lord pervade within and without. Thus the second round is expressive of joy to the resounding music of divine melody.

And now one is at a stage when love of the Lord wells up within and meeting the virtuous singing God’s praises and reciting His words one connects with the Divine. Symbolically the third round kindles the love of God in one’s conscious.

By Guru’s grace I have met my Lord, culmination of my desires, and my conscious now comprehends the divine. My Lord treats me sweetly and I serve him with love night and day. Thus in this fourth round I have found my eternal, imperishable Lord.[44]

The ceremony finishes singing a hymn of thanksgiving heralding completion of the wedding. O my father I am now wedded and by Guru’s blessings I am united with my Lord.[45]


Aape dharti aape hai rahak aap jamai peesave

Aap pakaave aap bhaande de parose aap hi beh khaave

Aape jal aape de chhinga aape chuli karave

Aape sangat sad bulave aap vida karave

Jisno kirpal hove har aape tisnoo hukam manavey – [Bihagare ki Var, M IV, p. 550]



Possessions are pure and blessed if their use is for altruistic purposes; the means were fair and owner is virtuous – wealth, fineries, delicacies, rites, beliefs and deeds of the prayerful are blessed; homes, mansions, palaces of those are blessed where the needy and saintly are welcome to seek shelter; and horses and saddlery of those is blessed which the virtuous can avail. The purpose and usage are the important criteria – significantly there is acceptance of plurality of rites, beliefs and action choices as long as they stand the test of virtuosity.[46]
Gurmukh sabh pavit hai dhan sampai maya – var sarang, p. 1246, M I

To the Gurmukh, everything is sacred: wealth, property, Maya

har arath jo kharachdey deyndey sukh paeya
Those who spend the wealth of the Lord find peace.



Humility reigns supreme as Guru Ram Das addresses God for His mercy –

jin sadhu charan sadh pag seve tin saphleo janam sanatha,

mo kau keejai das das dasan kau har dayadhar jaganatha

hum andhule gian heen agyani kion chaleh marag pantha,

hum andhule gur anchal deejai jan nanak chalai milantha

those who serve at the feet of saints their lives are accepted in Your court. In Your mercy make me the slave of Thy slave – I canst not see, I am ignorant devoid of understanding, how can I grasp Your way. Pray let me hold on to Your raiment so that I can walk along following You. [Jaitsree M IV, p. 696]

Full Citation:

[1] jis nau parteet hove tis ka gavaya thaen pavey – Suhi

[2] sabhna ragan vich so bhalla jit vaseya man aaey – Slok Varan te Vadhik

[3] gaveya suneya tin ka har thaeyn pavai jin satgur ki agya sat sat kar jani – Dhanasri M IV, p.669/11

[4] tujh bin dooja avar neh koey – Asa

[5] tudh jevad sarik hovey teh aakhiye – var bihagre ki

[6] thakur chhod dasi ko sincheh manukh andh agayana – bhairon

[7] aapey aap vartada piyara aape aap apah, vanjara jug aap hai hai piyara aape sacha saha

ape vanj vapareya piyara aape sach vesah —

aape sun sabh vekhda piyara mukh bolai aap muhah, aape ujhar paeyda piyara aap vikhale rah,

aape he sabh aap hai piyara aape veparwah,

aape aap upaeda piyara sir aape dhandre lah, aap karaey sakhti piyara aap maare mar jah,

aape patan paatni piyara aape paar langah,

aape sagar bohith piyara gur khevat aap chalho, aape he charh langda piyara kar choj vkhai patshaho,

aape aap dayal hai piyara jan nanak baksh milaho [Sorath M IV, p.604]

[8] har aape thakur aape sevak ji kya nanak jant vichara – Asa M IV, p.10

[9] jo seveh jo seveh tudh ji jan nanak tin kurbana – ibid

[10] jin seveya jin seveya mera har ji te har har roop samasi – ibid

[11] se bhgat se bhagat bhaley jan nanak ji jo bhavai mere har bhagwanta – ibid

[12] jan nanak gun gaavai karte ke ji jo sabhsai ka janoee – ibid

[13] chiri vichhuna har prabh paeya gal mileya sehj subhaye ram, jan nanak man anand bheya hai meri jindriye anhad sabad vajey ram – Bihagra M IV, p. 538

[14]hau sabh ves kari pir karan je har prabh sache bhavan, so pir peyara main nadar neh dekhai hau kio kar dheeraj pawan, jis karan hau seegar seegari so pir rata mera avra, nanak dhan dhan sohagan jin pir gawareya sach sawra – Vadhans M IV, p. 561

[15]sabh man tan jio karo har prabh ka it marag bhainey miliye, aapanra prabh nadar kar dekhai nanak jot joti raliyai – ibid

[16]jo har prabh ka main deye sneha tis man tan apna devan, nit pakha pheri sev kamawan tis aagey pani dhowan – ibid

[17]mera har prabh sejai aya man sukh samana ram – chhant bilawal m iv, mangal

[18]har dasan sion preet hai har dasan ko mit. har dasan kai vas hai jion janti kai vas jant – Var Sorath, Slok M IV, p.652

[19]har ke sant japoh har japna har sant chalai har nali, jin har japeya so har hoey har mileya kel kelali – Dhanasri M IV, p. 667

[20]har ke jan satgur sat purkha binau karon gur paas hum keerai kiram satgur sarnai kar daya nam pargas – – – – jo satgur saran sangat nahin aaey dharig jeevay dharid jeevas – – jin harjan satgur sangat payee tin dhur mastak likheya likhas, dhan dhan sat sangat jit har ras paeya mil jan nanak nam pargas – [Rag Gujri M IV – Rehras

[21] jhakhar jhagi mehn varsai bhi gur dekhan ko jaayi – suhi

[22] bin satgur seve jee ke bandhana jete karam kamaheh, bin satgur seve thawar neh pawehi mar jameh aaweh jaey, bin satgur seve phika bolna nam neh vasey men aaey, nanak bin satgur seve jam pur badhe marieh moh kale uth jaey – Bihagre ki Var Slok M IV, p. 552

[23] gur satgur ka jo sikh akhaey so bhalkey uth har nam dhiavai, udham karey bhalkey parbhati isnan karey amritsar naavai, updes guru har har jap jaapai sabh kilvikh paap dokh leh jaavai, phir chareh divas gurbani gaavai bahdean uthdeyan har nam dhiavai, jo sas giras dheaey mera har har so gursikh guru man bhavai, jis nau dayal hoe mera swami tis gursikh ko updes sunavai, jan nanak dhoor mangai tis jan ki jo aap japai avreh nam japavai – Gujri ki Var M IV, p. 305-6

[24] gur sikhan man har preet hai gur poojan aavai, har nam vanjeh rang sio laha har nam lai javai, gursikhan ke mukh ujley har dargeh bhaveh, gur satgur buhal har nam ka vadbhagi sikh gun sanjh karavai, tina gursikhan ko hau varya jo bahadeya uthdeyan har nam dheaveh –  Vadhans ki Var M IV, p.590/11

[25] sey gursikh dhan dhan hai jini gur updes suneya har kani — jinan gur sikhan ko har santusht hai tinni satgur ki gal manni – Vadhans ki Var, M IV, p.590/12

[26] dhan dhan so gursikh kahiey jo satgur charni jaey peya — tis gursikh kaun haun sad namaskari jo gur kai bhanai gursikh chaleya – Vadhans ki Var, M IV, p. 593/18

[27] sabhdoo vadey bhag gur sikhan ke jo gur charnee sikh parteya – Sorath ki Var, M IV, p. 649/18

[28] jo gur sikh gur sevde so pun prani, jan nanak tin ko vareya sada sada kurbani /10

jin har nama har cheteya hirdey urdharey, tin jam nerh neh aavei gursikh gur piarey /14

gur rasna amrit boldi har nam suhavee, jin sun sikhan gur maneya tina bukh sabh javee/18 – Tilang M IV, p.725-6

[29] ji ki birtha hoe so gur peh ardas kar, chodh sianap sagal man tan arap dhar, poojoh gur ke pair durmat jaey jar, sadh jan kai sang bhavjal bikham tar, sevoh satgur dev agai neh maroh dar, khin main karey nihal unney subhar bhar – Rag Gujri Var M IV, p.517

[30] satgur dharti dharam hai tis vich jeha ko beejai teha phal paey, gursikhi amrit beejeya tin amrit phal har paey, oona halt palt mukh ujlai ohi har dargeh sachi pehnaey – Gauri ki Var, Slok M IV, p. 302

[31]gur sikhan iko piar gur mitan putan bhaian – Var Sorath M IV, p. 648

[32] hau vari hau vari gursikh meet piarey ram, har namo har nam sunaey mera pritam nam adhare ram – Vadhans M IV, p. 573

[33] gurmukh sakhi saheli meri mo kau devo daan har pran jeevaya, ham hoveh lalle gole gursikhan ke jina andin har prabh purkh dheyaia mere man tan biroh gursikh pag laya, mere pran sakha gur ke sikh bhai mo ko karo updes har milai milaya – Gujri M IV, p.493

[34] guru sikh sikh guru hai eko gur updes chalaey – Asa M IV, p.444

[35] Sri Rag M IV, Pehre – p. 76

[36] tajey girhast bhaya banvasi ik khin manooa tikey neh tikaiya- Bilawal M IV, p, 834

[37] vichai ghrast udas rahai – Gujri, M IV, p. 494

[38] manas janam pun kar paeya bin naavai dharig dharig birtha jaaey – Gujri M IV, p. 493

[39] eh sareer sabh dharam hai jis andar sachay kee vich joti – Gujri M IV, p.309

[40] sa rasna dhan dhan hai meri jindriey gun gaave har prabh kere ram, tai sarvan bhale sabh neek heh meri jindriey har kirtan suneh har tere ram, so sees bhala pavitra pavan hai meri jindriey jo jaey lagai gur pairai ram, — te netra bhaley parwan heh meri jindriey jeh sadhu satgur dekheh ram, te hast punnet pavtra heh meri jindriey jo har jas har har lekhai ram, tis jan ke pag nit poojieh meri jindriey jo marag dharam chalesai ram, nanak tin vitoh varian meri jidriey har sun har nam maneseh ram – Bihagra M IV, p. 540

[41] sat santokh kar bhao kuram kurmai aaya balram jeeo – Suhi Chhant M IV, p. 772/3

[42] chadh deharh ghori bikham langaey mil gurmukh parmananda — jan nanak har kirpa dhari deh ghori chadh har paiya – Vadhans M IV, Ghorian – p.575-6

[43] har prabh kaj rachaeya gurmukh viha-an aaya – Suhi Chhant, M IV, p. 775

[44] jan kahey nanak lav pehli arambh kaj rachaeya – —jan nanak dooji lav chalai anhad sabad vajaey –– jan nanak bolai teejee lavain har upjai man bairag jio–jan nanak bolai chauthi lavain har paeya prabh avinasi – Suhi M IV, p. 773

[45] veha hoa mere babla gurmukhai  har paiya – Siri Rag M IV, p. 78

[46] tin ka khada paida  maya sabh pavit heh jo nam har ratey, tin ke ghar mandir mahal sarai sabh pavit heh jini gurmukh sevak sikh abhiagat jaey varsatey, tin ke turey jeen khurgeer sabh pavit heh jini gurmukh sikh sadh sant chadh jaatey, tin ke karam dharam karaj sabh pavit heh jo boleh har har ram nam har satey, jin kai potey pun hai se gurmukh sikh guru peh jatey –  Sorath ki Var M IV, p.649/16


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